Archive for the 'Exceptions' Category

What do you do when you’ve caught an exception?

Abort, Retry, Ignore

This article is a follow up to “Don’t Catch Exceptions“, which advocates that exceptions should (in general) be passed up to a “unit of work”, that is, a fairly coarse-grained activity which can reasonably be failed, retried or ignored. A unit of work could be:

  • an entire program, for a command-line script,
  • a single web request in a web application,
  • the delivery of an e-mail message
  • the handling of a single input record in a batch loading application,
  • rendering a single frame in a media player or a video game, or
  • an event handler in a GUI program

The code around the unit of work may look something like

[01] try {
[02]   DoUnitOfWork()
[03] } catch(Exception e) {
[04]    ... examine exception and decide what to do ...
[05] }

For the most part, the code inside DoUnitOfWork() and the functions it calls tries to throw exceptions upward rather than catch them.

To handle errors correctly, you need to answer a few questions, such as

  • Was this error caused by a corrupted application state?
  • Did this error cause the application state to be corrupted?
  • Was this error caused by invalid input?
  • What do we tell the user, the developers and the system administrator?
  • Could this operation succeed if it was retried?
  • Is there something else we could do?

Although it’s good to depend on existing exception hierarchies (at least you won’t introduce new problems), the way that exceptions are defined and thrown inside the work unit should help the code on line [04] make a decision about what to do — such practices are the subject of a future article, which subscribers to our RSS feed will be the first to read.

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Stop Catching Exceptions!


It’s clear that a lot of programmers are uncomfortable with exceptions [1] [2]; in the feedback of an article I wrote about casting, it seemed that many programmers saw the throwing of a NullReferenceException at a cast to be an incredible catastrophe.

In this article, I’ll share a philosophy that I hope will help programmers overcome the widespread fear of exceptions. It’s motivated by five goals:

  1. Do no harm
  2. To write as little error handling code as possible,
  3. To think about error handling as little as possible
  4. To handle errors correctly when possible,
  5. Otherwise errors should be handled sanely

To do that, I

  1. Use finally to stabilize program state when exceptions are thrown
  2. Catch and handle exceptions locally when the effects of the error are local and completely understood
  3. Wrap independent units of work in try-catch blocks to handle errors that have global impact

This isn’t the last word on error handling, but it avoids many of the pitfalls that people fall into with exceptions. By building upon this strategy, I believe it’s possible to develop an effective error handling strategy for most applications: future articles will build on this topic, so keep posted by subscribing to the Generation 5 RSS Feed.

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